In reply to question under the verbal reasoning section.... I have found an old post of mine describing how to attempt codes.....
Codes, type C - never explaned it in writing - so here goes....
Alphabet always given - add manually to the end ABCDE [ helps eg with C-4 ......XYZABCD....will take you straight to Y...saves the problem of children not 'seeing' that we have to treat the alphabet as a circle.
One basic RULE...WHATEVER you are LOOKING for goes on the BOTTOM
You NEED a rule because sometimes the word and code are written in a different order.
eg if the code for TRAP is USBQ
what does DPME mean?
Tell your child to go straight to the second line[dont waste time reading first line] what are we looking for? - in this case a word - therefore have to make the word of the first line go on the bottom ie write USBQ on top of TRAP
if the code for TRAP is USBQ
what does DPME mean?
Do NOT write this out separately, just pop USBQ on top of the TRAP that has already ben written down, saves time writing both out, and the possibility of writing down incorrect letters.
now work downwards ie how do you get from U to T = -1 apply this to the first letter of the code on the second line ie D-1=C
and so on...S to R=-1 apply it to second letter=P-1=O
B to A=-1 apply it to third letter =M-1=L
Q to P=-1 apply it to fourth letter E-1=D
at last we have the word COLD
Your child DOES NOT write all this down says to her/himself U to T =-1 apply it ie D-1=C the only thing that is written down is C
The real tests are going to have longer words - if your in Bucks you will have a multiple choice sheet - which helps alot when it comes to codes because you can check after you have done the first three letters and normally you have found enough to answer the question - saving you time. ......OR.......some children find the answer quicker if they start at the end of the word/code....
I like times of between 30 and 45 seconds for these particular codes - hope you have understood - much easier explaining verbally!
Once children have the technique mastered I offer them an alternative to writing the code/word on top of what they are looking for ie same rule -
If the code for TRAP is USBQ
what does DPME mean? .................looking for word, word goes on the bottom - so child will draw an arrow on top line pointing towards the word so child knows they are moving right to left ie U to T then S TO R etc..
It is MOST important to draw the arrow so child knows which way to move - if we were looking for the code in this example the arrow would go left to right
In addition the question could have been written....
If the code USBQ means TRAP
What does DPME mean?
Looking for the word, arrow goes left to right, not right to left as in the Ist question layout....
Its practice makes perfect!!! - I would rather explain verbally any day!!!!
THE OTHER TYPE OF CODE YOU MENTION
These are MIRROR codes, Mand N are the MIRROR
Some children are quick enough to recognise immediately others have to work the code out in the normal fashion...get it wrong and say to themselves ...oh yes its the other type!!
Child should glance at the first line and 'see' if they can notice certain letters are their opposite number at the opposite end of the alphabet
eg the letterE is the 5th letter in from the left, the 5th letter coming in from the opposite end of the alphabet is V....the letterW comes in 4 from the end of the alphabet, so the 4th letter coming in from the opposite end of the alphabet is D
So, what is the code for BAGS
B comes in 2....2 in from opposite end is Y
A comes in 1....1 in from opposite end isZ
G comes in 7....7 in from opposite end is T
S comes in 8 [ from right end]...8 in from opposit end is H
Code for BAGS is YZTH
I call these codes 'coming in from the ends'
Just to confuse matters this type may also take on a twist where..
If the code for EGG is UTT
What is the code for CAT
This time its come in from the opposit end plus 1...
E comes in 5.....U has come in from the opposite end 5 [+1]
So, the code for CAT.....
C comes in 3......3[+1] =4.....4 from opposite end =W
A comes in 1.....1[+1]=2.....2 from opposite end =Y
T comes in 7.....7[+1]=8.....8 from oppisite end =G
Code = WYG
Its good to encourage children to KNOW their way around the alphabet......from a young age my mum taught me the alphabet backwards....I can still reel it off to this day.